Periodontitis is a well-appreciated example of leukocyte-mediated bone loss and inflammation that has pathogenic features similar to those observed in other inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. Resolvins are a new family of bioactive products of omega-3 fatty acid transformation circuits initiated by aspirin treatment that counter proinflammatory signals. Because it is now increasingly apparent that local inflammation plays a critical role in many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and asthma, experiments were undertaken to evaluate the actions of the newly described EPA-derived Resolvin E1 (RvE1) in regulation of neutrophil tissue destruction and resolution of inflammation. The actions of an aspirin-triggered lipoxin (LX) analog and RvE1 in a human disease, localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP), were determined. Results indicate that neutrophils from LAP are refractory to anti-inflammatory molecules of the LX series, whereas LAP neutrophils respond to RvE1. In addition, RvE1 specifically binds to human neutrophils at a site that is functionally distinct from the LX receptor. Consistent with these potent actions, topical application of RvE1 in rabbit periodontitis conferred dramatic protection against inflammation induced tissue and bone loss associated with periodontitis.