Resolution of inflammation is an active process involving specialised pro-resolving mediators (SPM) generated from the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy may provide an intervention strategy to modify these novel SPM. This study aimed to assess the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on offspring SPM at birth and 12 years of age (12 years). In all, ninety-eight atopic pregnant women were randomised to 3·7 g daily n-3 fatty acids or a control (olive oil), from 20 weeks gestation until delivery. Blood was collected from the offspring at birth and at 12 years. Plasma SPM consisting of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), E-series resolvins, 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), D-series resolvins, 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA), 10 S,17S-dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, maresins and protectin 1, were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. We identified the resolvins RvE1, RvE2, RvE3, RvD1, 17R-RvD1 and RvD2 for the first time in human cord blood. n-3 Fatty acids increased cord blood 18-HEPE (P<0·001) derived from EPA relative to the control group.

DHA-derived 17-HDHA at birth was significantly increased in the n-3 fatty acid group relative to the controls (P=0·001), but other SPM were not different between the groups.

n-3 Fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy was associated with an increase in SPM precursors in the offspring at birth but the effects were not sustained at 12 years. The presence of these SPM, particularly at birth, may have functions relevant in the newborn that remain to be established, which may be useful for future investigations.