To investigate the effects of n-3 fatty acid supplements, both marine and plant-based, on glycemic traits in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.
In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 185 recruited Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to either fish oil (FO, n = 63), flaxseed oil (FSO, n = 61), or corn oil group (served as control group, n = 61) for 180 days. The patients were asked to take corresponding oil capsules (four capsules/day), which totally provided 2 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in FO group and 2.5 g/day of alpha-linolenic acid in FSO group. No group × time interaction was observed for homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, fasting insulin, or glucose. Significant group × time interaction (P = 0.035) was observed for glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), with HbA1c decreased in FO group compared with corn oil group (P = 0.037). We also found significant group × time interactions for lipid traits, including LDL cholesterol (P = 0.043), total cholesterol (P = 0.021), total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (P = 0.009), and triacylglycerol (P = 0.003), with the lipid profiles improved in FO group. No significant effects of FSO on glycemic traits or blood lipids were observed.
Marine n-3 PUFA supplements may improve glycemic control and lipid profiles among Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.