The purpose of this study was to investigate the trans fatty acids (TFA) content and distribution in colostrum, mature milk, and diet of adolescent mothers, after TFA declaration in food labels became mandatory in Brazil. Participants were healthy adolescents (n 54, 15-19 years, 1-90 days postpartum) practicing exclusive breastfeeding. Milk samples were collected 3 days after delivery (colostrum) and in the third month postpartum (mature milk) by hand expression. The fatty acid composition of the milk samples was determined by gas chromatography. TFA intake corresponded to 1.23 % of total energy value. Total 18:2 TFA accounted for less than 0.5 % of the energy intake. The amount of total 18:1 TFA (mean ± SEM) was 1.9 % ± 0.14 in colostrum and 1.5 % ± 0.2 in mature milk. The total content of n-3 PUFA was inversely correlated with the total content of 18:1 TFA in colostrum. Both in colostrum and in mature milk, vaccenic acid (11t-18:1) was found to be the most abundant 18:1 trans isomer, followed by elaidic acid (9t-18:1), whereas rumenic acid (9c,11t-18:2 CLA) was the predominant 18:2 trans isomer.

In conclusion, the levels of TFA of industrial sources found in the mother's diet and breast milk (colostrum and mature milk) showed a decrease in relation to those observed in studies conducted prior to the TFA labeling resolution in Brazil.

However, the current low intake levels of n-3 LCPUFA and DHA content in the milk of lactating adolescents may be insufficient for supporting adequate neurological development of the infants.