Depression is associated with somatic immune changes, and neuroinflammation is now recognized as hallmark for depressive disorders. N-3 (or omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are well known to suppress neuroinflammation, reduce oxidative stress, and protect neuron from injury.

We pretreated animals with fish oil and induced acute depression-like behaviors with systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The levels of cytokines and stress hormones were determined from plasma and different brain areas.

The results showed that fish oil treatment prevent LPS-induce depressive behavior by suppression of neuroinflammation. LPS induced acute neuroinflammation in different brain regions, which were prevented in fish oil fed mice. However, neither LPS administration nor fish oil treatment has strong effect on stress hormone secretion in the hypothalamus and adrenal.

Fish oil might provide a useful therapy against inflammation-associated depression.