ABSTRACT: Background and Objective: Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO) rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF) rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS.

METHODS: Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health.

RESULTS: Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P=0.005), epididymal fat weight (P=0.005), fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P<0.05), HOMA-IR (5.0 vs 13.6; P<0.019), and serum cholesterol (167 vs 94 mg/dL; P<0.05). When challenged with LPS, FO-fed mice had significantly lower serum IL-1beta compared to SF-fed mice (2.0 vs 30.0 pg/mL; P<0.001). After LPS-challenge, SF-fed mice had higher mortality, lost more body weight, and had greater decrease in blood glucose compared to FO-fed mice.

CONCLUSION: Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice.