INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular complications are the main cause of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients generally have a more atherogenic serum lipid profile. Although statins are the cornerstone of lipid-lowering therapy, there is an important role of fibrates in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Fibrates increased the risk of rhabdomyolysis. ESRD patients are at risk for inadequate omega-3 intake as a result of renal dietary recommendations. In the general population omega-3 fatty acids play an important modulatory role in lipid regulation, immune and inflammatory responses, progression of arteriosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Aim: To evaluate the effect of oral omega-3 administration on plasma lipid levels and inflammatory markers in PD patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen adult and stable PD patients who did not receive omega-3 or fibrates treatment before were included in the study. All subjects followed the usual dialysis diet and regimen and continued with the same cholesterol-lowering statins. The patients were treated with daily oral 2.4 g docosahexaenoic acid and 1 g eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in three divided doses with meals for 8 weeks. Triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, and inflammation markers were evaluated before the administration of omega-3 and at 8 weeks.

RESULTS: Triglyceride levels were decreased significantly (p = 0.001). Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol levels were not affected. ESR, CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, 4-hydroxynonenal, and malondialdehyde levels reduced insignificantly.

CONCLUSIONS: This short-term pilot study demonstrated the efficacy, safety, and well tolerability of omega-3 in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in PD patients.